If you operate a business in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, or elsewhere, you may have considered doing business in the United States as well. With 329 million people and a GDP of $20.66 trillion per year, the United States is a very attractive market for businesses from other countries.
Perhaps you’ve saturated your local market and are looking for new sales opportunities, or maybe you’re seeking to gain access to U.S. capital markets. Either way, given the common language and relatively similar cultures, it seems that it should be easy to bring a product or service to the United States from abroad. Unfortunately, this is frequently not the case.
The unique nature of the American federal system of government has resulted in a myriad of laws and regulations that differ among the federal government, the 50 state governments, and even at the local level. Sales tax jurisdictions, for example, number in the tens of thousands. The rules and rates may be different for all of them.
The good news is that getting started in the U.S. has never been easier. Thanks to cloud technology, businesses around the world are now able to effectively and affordably manage an international workforce. And firms such as Aprio Cloud are able to collaborate with clients based all around the globe. And to navigate more complex international business advisory and compliance matters firms such as Aprio can help you with everything from world-wide tax planning and transfer pricing to global mobility.
All of this makes it more cost effective than ever for small businesses abroad to tap into U.S. markets.
Still interested in coming to the U.S.?
This guide is designed to help you get an idea of what it will take to do so. To be clear, this guide does NOT cover everything. Every business is different, and it is essential that you consult with qualified advisors from a legal, accounting and tax perspective.
Here’s what we’ll cover in this guide:
- Why you should expand to the U.S.
- How to form your U.S. entity
- Registering your U.S. entity
- Opening a bank account in the U.S.
- Setting up your back office (accounting system)
- Setting up payroll and hiring your first employee
- Setting up benefits for your employee(s)
- Establishing credit in the U.S.
- Staying compliant with sales tax
- Filing income taxes in the U.S.
- Properly insuring your U.S. business
If you’re interested in talking to Aprio Cloud, you can schedule a complimentary consultation. Aprio Cloud offers all-inclusive packages to get you started in the United States with an accounting team that will support you as you grow.
2. Why expand to the United States?
There are three primary reasons we’ve identified at Aprio Cloud as to why businesses abroad might want to do business here in the U.S.
2.1 Sell to more consumers and small businesses
If you’ve exhausted the opportunities in your local markets, or simply want to expand as fast as possible, getting access to U.S. consumers and small businesses is one way to grow.
To understand the potential, let’s use Australia as an example. The United States has 329 million people compared to 24.8 million in Australia. That’s 13 times more potential consumers! And real GDP is nearly 16.7 times greater. (Source: WolframAlpha)
You may also benefit from being a U.S. business when selling to U.S. consumers because consumers in the U.S. are more likely to buy on the internet from a "local" company.
2.2 Do business with the U.S. enterprise
Big businesses often want to do business with a U.S. entity. And they can use their financial muscle to require it. One reason big business likes to work with other U.S. businesses is that they can more easily enforce contracts.
Forming a U.S. entity also makes it a lot easier for you to get paid.
Due to regulations on foreign payments from U.S. firms, you may be subjected to withholding. U.S. companies are required to collect W8BEN forms from foreign vendors. Many small businesses don’t comply with this rule, but large businesses are much more likely to do so. Come to the U.S. and you potentially eliminate this hassle.
2.3 Gain access to U.S. capital markets
United States investors want to finance a United States entity, period.
Their goal (and likely your goal) is to go public in the U.S. or get acquired by a U.S. company. This could mean anything from Angel Investors, to Seed Rounds, to Series A and so forth. Venture Capital, Private Equity and virtually anyone looking to invest will demand it, and if you are lucky enough, you can even become publicly traded on a U.S. exchange with unprecedented access to capital.
3. Setting up your United States company
Some good news: U.S. citizenship and/or residency are NOT necessary to incorporate in the United States. The process is pretty much the same for you as for someone inside the country. But before going to the legal and administrative hassle of setting up a U.S. entity, it’s a good idea to make sure you actually need one first.
3.1 When you need to set up a U.S. entity
You need to set up a U.S. entity if you plan for your business to have a physical presence in the U.S.
Here are some examples of what constitutes a physical presence:
Owning inventory. If you send inventory you own to be warehoused in the United States, you have a physical presence in this country. Using Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) counts! Sellers who use Amazon FBA are required to collect and remit sales tax in all the states where their inventory is stored by Amazon, which could be any state where there is an Amazon Fulfillment Center. At the time of writing, Avalara lists 27 states where Amazon has warehouses.
Hiring employees. If you plan on hiring or are currently paying independent contractors, be careful. The IRS has been cracking down on companies that have been improperly classifying workers as independent contractors instead of employees. If you have paid independent contractors who the IRS then reclassifies, your U.S. entity will be subject to substantial penalties and interest for nonpayment of payroll taxes. If you did not set up a U.S. entity, the IRS might determine that you have a tax filing requirement due to your physical presence in the U.S. and could come after you for penalties for not filing and paying income tax as well. If you’re not sure how to classify your worker, we recommend you review the IRS page Independent Contractor (Self-Employed) or Employee? and consult with a tax advisor.
Leasing an office. Setting up an office with a physical address qualifies, even if you don’t plan to be here most of the time.
3.2 When you don’t need to set up a U.S. entity
You might not need to set up a U.S. entity if:
- You don’t need an EIN (for example, to open a US bank account), AND
- You don’t plan on having a physical presence, i.e., you’re just exporting goods from your country to the U.S. or drop shipping goods from another country to customers in the U.S.
However, you want to be careful about this. If you do inadvertently develop a U.S. presence you may open your foreign corporation to U.S. reporting requirements.
The safest course is to carefully review your U.S. activities and consider creating a U.S. entity. The rules regarding physical presence are complicated and you should consult with a tax advisor here.
3.3 What entity type to choose
There are three ways you can organize in the U.S.:
- Limited Liability Company (LLC)
- Corporation filing as...
- S corporation
- C corporation
It is very important to consider these choices carefully. We have seen many U.S entities formed either incorrectly or formed and then have unintended income tax consequences for the owners. The last thing you want to do is make a non-U.S. citizen or resident subject to U.S. personal income taxes, especially when you don’t even realize it.
3.3.1 Limited Liability Company (LLC)
LLCs are very flexible when it comes to management structure and require relatively little work to maintain from an administrative standpoint. They can also elect to be taxed as either partnerships or corporations. LLCs in certain cases can be treated as disregarded entities if there is a sole owner.
Being taxed as a partnership means that the owners escape double taxation. One downside of LLCs is that it can be more difficult to raise capital, since the sale of additional interests is subject to operating agreement restrictions. Basically, it can be more of a hassle to figure out from a legal perspective because each LLC operating agreement is different.
3.3.2 S corporation
We can cross the S corporation off of our list right away because the owners of S corporations must all be U.S. citizens or residents and can’t be other corporations. This means that you can’t set up an S corporation as a subsidiary of a foreign corporation.
3.3.3 C corporation
C corporations require more formalities to maintain, but are preferred by outside investors. Investors prefer corporations because the rules allow owners to hold different classes of stock, such as preferred and common stock. If you plan to seek investors or go for an IPO (Initial Public Offering), you should form a C corp.
3.4 Where to incorporate
Incorporation in the U.S. is done at the state level, not at the federal level. This means you can choose from among all of the 50 states.
However, there is one state that stands out above the pack as the place to start your business: Delaware. Over 50% of all publicly-traded companies in the United States and 64% of the Fortune 500 are Delaware corporations [Source].
Close to 100% of our international clients use Delaware to incorporate.
Delaware is popular for a variety of reasons:
- A solid body of written and case law,
- specialized courts for business,
- an efficient Division of Corporations, and
- the fact that the majority of prominent companies are already formed there.
If you form a Delaware C corp, you’ll be following the norm and won’t raise any eyebrows.If you’re seeking investment, this is a good thing.
Many investors will require you to be a Delaware C corp anyway, so by forming this way to start, you're ensuring you won’t have to go through the hassle of converting to one down the road. There is no reason to even be discussing the legal structure or formation when attempting to raise capital. If you're doing that, then you aren’t talking about your business.
There are some reasons why you might choose a different state, but the vast majority of foreign businesses will want to set up a Delaware C corporation as their U.S. subsidiary, so we’ll use that as our example as we proceed through the guide.
3.5 How to form your new business entity
There are three ways to set up your new entity:
- Hire a qualified U. S attorney (our preferred method)
- Use an incorporation service
- Do it yourself (not recommended)
- Use Aprio Cloud
We strongly recommend seeking the advice of an experienced attorney before forming your U.S. entity. Every business is different, and a good attorney will ask the detailed questions to determine exactly what is needed. Your accountant and/or tax advisor should work closely with the attorney so that the tax issues can be appropriately discussed and resolved.
As a less costly alternative, you can use an incorporation service. Here are a few to consider (in alphabetical order):
Lastly, you can do it all yourself — a path that we do not recommend.
3.5.1 Obtain a Registered Agent
Delaware law requires that every business entity maintains a Registered Agent with a physical street address in the state . A Registered Agent is a business or individual designated to receive service of process (SOP) when a business entity is a party in a legal action such as a lawsuit or summons.
3.5.2 Reserve your entity name (optional)
While not required, it is a good idea to reserve your entity name so you don’t find out that it is taken before your application is approved. For $75, you can reserve your entity name online.
3.5.3 File your Certificate of Incorporation / Formation Forms
The Certificate of Incorporation lists the following:
- The name of the corporation
- Purpose of corporation
- Details about the corporation’s stock structure
- Registered agent name and address
- The name and addresses of the incorporator
The Certificate of Incorporation is a one page document that must be either mailed or faxed — it can’t be submitted online. PDF fillable forms are available online here. A cover sheet is required and can be accessed here.
3.5.4 Order a Certificate of Status or Certificate of Good Standing
The Delaware Certificate of Good Standing is a letter provided by the Secretary of State that declares that a corporation is in good standing. You’ll typically need one to open a corporate bank account, obtain a loan, and more. Usually, these forms are good for up to 60 days from the date of issuance.
You can order a Certificate of Status or Certificate of Good Standing by submitting a request in writing. The fee is $50. The Secretary of State has provided a template with instructions.
For more information, visit this page: https://corp.delaware.gov/directweb/
3.5.5 Develop corporate bylaws, resolutions, and minutes of the first meeting of the Board of Directors
The corporation’s bylaws are its internal rules that govern how it operates (for example, the rights and powers of the directors, officers, shareholders and employees). These documents are not filed with the state but are kept on file by the corporation.
Properly listing the ownership and directors in the corporate bylaws is important for banking and tax reasons.
For tax purposes, you want the U.S. entity to be a fully-owned subsidiary of your “foreign” entity, not you or any of the individual owners. If you form it correctly, the individuals will probably not have an individual filing requirement in the U.S., unless they come here. If you incorrectly form as a pass-through entity with the individuals as owners, you probably have a personal U.S. filing requirement (which you want to avoid).
For ease of establishing banking in the U.S., it is best to have just one director listed for the U.S. entity. Banks usually require the directors to be present when opening a bank account, and if you’ve listed multiple directors who live abroad, it may be difficult to open a bank account in the U.S. as a result.
3.5.6 Stay compliant by filing your Annual Report and paying franchise tax
All corporations are required to file an Annual Report and pay the Delaware franchise tax by March 1 of each year.
The Annual Report filing fee is $50. The minimum franchise tax is $175. For more details, see Franchise Taxes on the Division of Revenue website.
While this filing can be done on your own, we recommend you hire a professional to assist. That is especially true if you have a complicated legal structure of different classes of stock.
3.6 Register your new corporation with the IRS
You can apply for a federal EIN (Employer Identification Number) online. The person applying online must have a valid Taxpayer Identification Number (SSN, ITIN, or EIN).
Because the person applying must already have an ID number, we recommend that you obtain a U.S. agent to register on your behalf (it can be us or your attorney) or use one of the incorporation companies listed earlier in this guide.
3.7 Register as a foreign corporation in the state where you are doing business
You’ll also need to register your corporation in the state where you are doing business. For example, if you formed a Delaware corporation and will have your office in San Francisco, you’ll need to register as a foreign corporation with the California Secretary of State and pay the appropriate filing and annual fees.
If you are not familiar with the rules and regulations, we recommend you get assistance from an attorney or tax advisor.
3.8 Register your corporation at the local level
You might also need to register your corporation at the local level. For example, anyone engaged in business within the City of Los Angeles is required to obtain a Tax Registration Certificate (TRC) and pay the required business tax.
Make sure to check with the local government if there are any requirements such as this in jurisdictions where you have a presence. Some local jurisdictions collect payroll taxes, which we’ll discuss in the section below on payroll tax.
4 Open your corporate bank account
Banks have varying and often strict requirements when it comes to corporations with foreign shareholders.
You may be required to show up in person at the bank branch to provide a “wet signature”. Some banks require all the officers and directors to be present. Others do not. Additionally, some banks may require you maintain minimum balances for specified periods of time or be part of a particular industry.
Make sure to check with the bank about their requirements before you begin the process of opening your accounts.
4.1 Obtain a physical address
Most banks require a U.S. business street address to set up a corporate bank account. P.O. boxes and UPS Stores, etc., will not work as a business address for most banks.
In 2018 the banks adopted new policies that make it harder to open an account. Virtual mail services and mailing addresses without a physical presence are no longer accepted by banks for opening an account. At Aprio Cloud we have addressed this and have a solution for ensuring that new businesses have a physical address acceptable by the bank.
4.2 Come to the U.S. to open your accounts
Most banks will require that an officer of the U.S. entity come in person to the bank branch to open the corporate bank accounts.
Some banks require all officers to be present, so you should be careful about who you name as an officer of the U.S. entity. We recommend that you name just one officer to prevent any issues in this regard.
5 Set up your U.S. “back office”
It’s likely that many of your key personnel will not be in the United States much of the year. Therefore, it’s important to set up your accounting and other “back office” systems using cloud applications that your team can access from anywhere.
5.1 Select a U.S. accountant or bookkeeper
When choosing an accountant or bookkeeper in the U.S., you’ll need to decide what sort of relationship you’re looking for.
In this country, accountants provide a wide range of services. Some only do taxes. Some do both taxes and advisory (virtual CFO), but not bookkeeping. Some firms, such as Aprio Cloud, provide a full-service solution that encompasses everything from bookkeeping to tax, payroll, HR and finance advisory services.
Whatever you do, don’t try to do your U.S. income taxes yourself. Hire a professional!
5.2 Set up your cloud accounting software
At Aprio Cloud, we love using Xero for accounting for our international clients because it is built from the ground up for global business. Many global small businesses are already on Xero, so it’s easy to copy and adapt the existing chart of accounts in the parent company to use with the U.S. subsidiary.
We recommend retaining the assistance of a U.S. accountant (we’re happy to help!) in setting up your Xero organization (org).
If you want to do it yourself, here’s what you’ll need before you get started:
- Legal name of your organization — On your state incorporation documents.
- Financial year end for your organization — By default, this is the calendar year, but you can also potentially elect a different tax year. Consult with your tax advisor for more on this.
- Tax settings for filing returns for your organization — This includes your Tax ID number (EIN) that you registered for with the IRS. If you are responsible for collecting sales tax, you’ll also need to know how often and whether or not you’re a cash or accrual basis taxpayer.
- Email address of your accountant or bookkeeper (if applicable) - You’ll need this to invite your advisor to access your organization.
- Logo, payment terms and a starting point for your invoice/credit note numbering sequence - We recommend setting default payment terms of 14 days or less due to the time it takes to recieve paper checks by mail.
- Your chart of accounts (for example, Rent, Stationery, Sales) — We recommend using the same categories and numbering system as the parent company, if possible. Then, make any changes needed for accounting unique to the United States. With Xero, you can easily export your existing chart of accounts from the parent company file to import into the subsidiary company file.
- Your bank and credit card account numbers — You should have these already if you’ve set up your U.S. bank accounts.
- Conversion date — This will be the first day of the first fiscal year for your new entity.
- Sales tax rates — If you are going to be charging sales tax, you’ll need to know the proper rates to charge. Avalara's Free Sales Tax Rate Map is a good place to start.
- Account balances — These should all be zero if you’re setting up Xero from the beginning of your new company.
- Outstanding invoices, bills, credit notes, and uncleared funds — Again, you shouldn’t have any of these to enter if you’re starting with Xero from the beginning.
Xero has a detailed Getting Started Guide to help you out. However, we highly recommend you seek the assistance of a U.S. accountant in setting up your U.S. Xero org. Details such as sales tax settings and payroll are quite different than abroad. You want to make sure that your org gets set up right from the start.
5.3 Set up your cloud accounting add-ons
Two Xero add-ons we frequently recommend to our global clients are Receipt Bank and Spotlight Reporting.
Many of our clients are already using these tools abroad, so it makes sense to use them and keep things consistent with the U.S. entity.
5.3.1 Receipt Bank
Many of our global clients are already using Receipt Bank, which automates the entry of receipts and invoices into Xero. Receipt Bank makes it easy for our clients to submit documents to us from anywhere in the world via email, Dropbox, the mobile apps, or direct upload from a desktop computer.
Receipt Bank saves us lots of time by automatically extracting the following information:
- Item type - e.g. receipt, invoice, credit note, etc.
- Invoice Number (where applicable)
- Sales Tax - e.g. GST, VAT, TVA, etc.
- Payment method - e.g. the last four digits of the card, i.e. 1234
We can then sync this data into Xero as transactions with the document image attached. That’s what we call “audit proof”.
5.3.2 Spotlight Reporting
Spotlight Reporting makes beautiful visual dashboards and reports. It also allows us to instantly consolidate up to 50 organizations with multiple currencies. With both the parent and subsidiary on Xero, we and your accountants back home can easily collaborate to produce a set of consolidated financials.
6 Hire your first employee
Setting up payroll presents a unique challenge to global businesses, mostly due to the complexities of setting up health benefits for U.S. workers.
When you first expand to the United States, you may only need to hire one employee to start. But one employee doesn’t qualify as a “group” for most benefit providers (and even some PEOs).
This means that you can set up payroll, but you won’t be able to provide health benefits to your first employee until you hire your second employee. That’s not ideal.
For this reason, selecting the right payroll provider is important. See below for more on choosing a payroll provider or PEO (and what that is).
6.1 Determine independent contractor vs. employee
It’s important to determine ahead of time if the person you’re hiring should be treated as an employee or an independent contractor. Paying independent contractors provides significant benefits to the business, but can also result in serious legal and tax problems if the contractor is later determined by the authorities to be an employee.
It’s advantageous for a business to pay workers as contractors because the business does not have to make payroll deductions, withholdings or pay the employer share of Social Security and Medicare (FICA). As of 2019, the employer share of FICA is 7.65 percent of the first $132,900 of earnings, but this wage base does traditionally get updated, with the new tax law now in place you should contact an experienced CPA for guidance.
Often the independent contractor vs. employee determination is clear and easy to make. For example, the attorney who you engage to prepare your incorporation documents is clearly a contractor, not an employee.
But sometimes this is more difficult to determine. What about a bookkeeper who comes to your office three days a week? This person could be paid as a part-time employee or a contractor by different employers for the same type of work.
According to federal law, the determination is made based on three factors:
Facts that provide evidence of the degree of control and independence fall into three categories:
- Behavioral: Does the company control or have the right to control what the worker does and how the worker does his or her job?
- Financial: Are the business aspects of the worker’s job controlled by the payer? (these include things like how worker is paid, whether expenses are reimbursed, who provides tools/supplies, etc.)
- Type of Relationship: Are there written contracts or employee type benefits (i.e. pension plan, insurance, vacation pay, etc.)? Will the relationship continue and is the work performed a key aspect of the business?
Businesses must weigh all these factors when determining whether a worker is an employee or an independent contractor. Some factors may indicate that the worker is an employee, while other factors indicate that the worker is an independent contractor. There is no “magic” or set number of factors that “makes” the worker an employee or an independent contractor, and no one factor stands alone in making this determination. Also, factors which are relevant in one situation may not be relevant in another.
The keys are to look at the entire relationship, consider the degree or extent of the right to direct and control, and finally, to document each of the factors used in coming up with the determination.
As you can see from the above excerpt, federal law is not clear cut on this matter, and state laws complicate things even further.
In most cases where there is potential for confusion, the safest approach is to pay your worker as an employee.
6.2 Select a payroll provider — for just one employee
Often, you only need to hire one employee to start. Because one employee doesn’t qualify as a “group” for most payroll providers, you’re limited in your options if you want to provide health benefits to your employee.
For these firms, we recommend TriNet, since they will create a group plan for just one employee.
6.3 Select a payroll provider — for two or more employees
If you will have two or more employees to start, you have many options. The decision of which provider to choose is complicated by the fact that some payroll providers offer health benefits as well. You can also “mix and match” payroll providers with benefits providers. We suggest to consider the following:
6.3.1 Gusto (formerly ZenPayroll)
Like the big payroll players (Paychex and ADP), Gusto automatically calculates, impounds and remits payroll taxes to the proper authorities. But unlike those providers, Gusto is completely online and easy to use. It also syncs seamlessly with Xero to send in the necessary accounting entries after each payroll.
In 2015, Gusto began offering integrated health benefits and workers’ compensation insurance alongside payroll. Gusto has now partnered with a broker who can offer coverage in most of the 50 states across multiple industries. If you have questions regarding a specific state, please reach out for guidance.
One way to avoid having to deal with setting up payroll or benefits entirely is to use a PEO (Professional Employer Organization).
When you work with a PEO, it becomes the “Employer of Record” and is responsible for payroll, benefits, HR services, workers compensation, unemployment insurance claims, and other compliance activities.
The benefit of using a PEO is that you can spend less time on compliance because they handle everything for you! The downside is that PEOs can be expensive and difficult to get out of.
One great example of a PEO solution is Justworks.
6.4 Register for payroll withholding & taxes
6.4.1 Set up your federal payroll tax account
Register with the IRS using EFTPS (the Electronic Federal Payment System) to pay:
- Income tax withholding
- FICA payroll tax
- Social security
- FUTA payroll tax (Federal Unemployment Tax Act)
To enroll, you’ll need the following:
- EIN (Employer Identification Number)
- Legal business name
- U.S. phone number
- International phone number
- Business address
- Bank account routing and account number
6.4.2 Set up state payroll tax accounts
You’ll need to register with any state where you have employees who live or work.
We’ll use California as an example because so many foreign startups open their first U.S. office in San Francisco or Los Angeles.
In California, you’ll need to register with the EDD (Employment Development Department) for:
- California income tax withholding
- Unemployment Insurance
- Employment Training Tax
- State Disability Insurance (SDI)
Note that your payroll provider may handle this for you, so check with them before you start.
6.4.3 Set up local payroll tax accounts
Some local jurisdictions also collect payroll taxes. Make sure to register and pay these taxes as well. For example, The City of San Francisco collects a Payroll Expense Tax. All businesses with a taxable San Francisco payroll expense greater than $150,000 must file a Payroll Expense Tax Statement for their business annually by the last day of February for the prior calendar year (Jan. 1st - Dec. 31st).
7 Obtain workers’ compensation insurance
In most states for most companies, you are required to carry workers’ compensation insurance. Workers' compensation insurance protects your business against claims for injuries, death, and illness that could occur as a direct result of the work done while your employees are on the job.
The easiest way to manage a workers’ compensation insurance policy is to purchase it through your payroll provider. Gusto partners with AP Intego offer “pay-as-you-go” insurance. Pay-as-you-go insurance is preferable because insurance premiums are deducted throughout the year based on actual payrolls run.
Under the traditional method, you pay a premium amount up-front based on an estimated payroll for the whole year. At the end of the policy, the employer then has to file paperwork to reconcile the difference between the estimated and actual payroll amounts. Pay-as-you-go insurance eliminates this hassle.
8 Set up employee health benefits
Employers from other countries are often surprised to learn that the United States relies extensively on employer-provided insurance. 56% of the United States population get their health insurance through their employer (Source: U.S. Census).
If you do not provide health benefits, your employees will be forced to purchase insurance themselves, likely on one of the health exchanges set up under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA, known colloquially as "Obamacare"). Depending on your industry, this may put you at a significant disadvantage when recruiting.
To save themselves the trouble of setting up a company health plan, some employers reimburse their employees for insurance the employees have purchased individually on the exchanges. Beware that as of June 30, 2015, doing this may result in a fine of $100 per day per employee. Therefore, we do not recommend this option!
8.1 Choose a health benefits provider
If your employees are all in California, you can use Gusto for health benefits. This is easy if you’re already using Gusto for payroll.
If you'll be operating in other states, we can refer you to a broker who can help you set up health benefits.
9 Establish credit in the U.S.
Now that you’ve set up your U.S. business, you’ll likely want to start building some credit history.
The first thing you need to do as a foreigner is to obtain a Social Security Number. The credit reporting agencies use SSNs as their primary identifier, so it is impossible to build credit without one.
To get a SSN as a non immigrant, you’ll first need papers from the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) showing your U.S. immigration status and authorization to work in the United States.
After obtaining your papers, you can apply for a Social Security number by visiting a Social Security office with a completed Form SS-5. The Social Security Administration recommends waiting 10 days after arriving in the U.S. to make it easier for them to verify your DHS documents online.
Once you’ve obtained your SSN, check with your bank to see if they will give you a secured loan or a secured credit card. With a secured loan, you put money in a deposit account with the bank as collateral. Secured credit cards work in a similar way.
If you have a family member already in the United States, you have another option. Ask your relative to make you a cosigner on a new loan or a credit card. Your cosigner will be liable for any debt if you don’t pay, but you will start building a credit history right away.
Once you’ve got a loan or credit card, it is essential that you both use your credit and that you pay the bills on time every month. Over time you’ll build up a history of positive payments, which will lead to a good credit score. Just know that it won’t happen overnight.
The credit history issue cannot be understated. Many of our clients come here and can’t even lease a vehicle.
10 Collect and remit sales tax
To say that sales tax in the United States is complicated is an understatement. In 2014, the Tax Foundation counted nearly 10,000 sales tax jurisdictions.
Knowing when to collect sales tax and how much to collect is a big problem for many sellers in the United States, particularly online sellers.
10.1 When to collect sales tax
The key to knowing when to collect sales tax is nexus. If you have a sales tax nexus in a state, then you must collect sales tax from all customers in that state (for taxable items).
Different states have somewhat different definitions of nexus, but usually physical presence is enough to trigger nexus.
Having an office, employee, warehouse, affiliate or inventory in a state usually counts as a physical presence. If you think you might have a physical presence in a state, you should consult with a tax advisor and/or state’s tax authority to find out for sure.
Different states and taxing authorities require sales tax compliance on different things. For example, professional services or SaaS products may be taxable in some places, but not in others.
Although there are many helpful online accounting tools that can help simplify sales tax registration, collection, remission and filing, we highly recommend that companies seek the advice of an experienced CPA firm to navigate sales tax matters. Aprio Cloud offers Outsourced Sales Tax Compliance Services.
10.2 How much sales tax to collect
Thanks to online accounting tools, it’s easy to find out how much sales tax to collect for a given address. Just head over to Avalara Sales Tax and enter the address.
The tricky part is knowing which address to use.
Some states are “origin-based”. This means that you charge the amount of tax at your own business location regardless of where you ship taxable items in that state.
Additionally, some states require different rates depending on whether it is your home state or whether you are a “remote seller”.
11 File your 1099s
The IRS requires you to file a Form 1099-MISC for each contractor you paid $600 or more during the tax year.
In order to do so, you'll need the contractor's mailing address and Social Security number or Employer Identification Number (EIN) – information they provide on a W-9 form. That's why it's best to have contractors complete a W-9s when you first hire them.
The deadline to send out 1099s to your contractors is January 31st each year. The deadline for filing your 1099s with the IRS is February 28th. However, the deadline is extended to March 31st if you file electronically.
11.1 Penalties for not filing 1099s
For each 1099 form that you don't file, the IRS can charge you a penalty fee equal to 10 percent of the unreported amount or $250 – whichever is greater. As if that isn't bad enough, the state of California can also disallow the entire deduction.
12 Pay your corporate taxes
Here’s a list of the various filing requirements due to federal and state authorities for a Delaware C corporation that is foreign owned, operating in California with a 12/31 fiscal year end:
- March 1 - Delaware Annual Report and Franchise Tax [file and pay online]
- March 15 - IRS Form 1120, U.S. Corporation Income Tax Return.
- March 15 - IRS Form 5472, Information Return of a 25% Foreign-Owned U.S. Corporation or a Foreign Corporation Engaged in a U.S. Trade or Business.
- March 15 - California Form 100, California Corporation Franchise or Income Tax Return.
13 Stay compliant with personal taxes and filings
Deadline: April 15
If you receive a W-2 from a United States business or have spent more than 183 days in the US over the last 3 years, you have a requirement to file an individual income tax return to the IRS and the state and/or city you are located in.
It is important to remember that if you bring an employee from your country to the U.S. and he or she has spent time here to launch your business, they could have a filing requirement, even if they are paid by the foreign entity.
13.1 Information report of your foreign assets
Deadline: June 30th
If you individually or your U.S. company have any assets outside the U.S., or have signatory authority over a foreign bank account, you have an additional filing requirement to file a FINCen form by June 30th each year.
There is no tax due on these assets, but the US will want to know descriptions and amounts.
The full line item instructions are located at FBAR Line Item Instructions.
14 Stay compliant with other local taxes
Local jurisdictions may collect additional taxes. For example, the City of Los Angeles imposes imposes a tax on gross receipts for any person conducting any business within city limits. Don’t forget to register with any local jurisdictions that require it and remit the appropriate taxes.
15 Additional resources
Internal Revenue Service 2016 Tax Calendar: https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/p509.pdf